Routing Technology – Introduction

The purpose of this Unit is to provide learners with an understanding of the basic theory of common contemporary interior gateway routing protocols and to implement these on routers designed to support small to medium sized enterprises. It is intended for those undertaking an HNC or HND in a Computer Networking or related area who require a basic understanding of routing technology.

On completion of the Unit learners should be able to:

  • Describe router fundamentals.
  • Describe contemporary IP addressing schemes.
  • Describe the operation of common contemporary interior gateway routing protocols.
  • Implement a routed network topology.

Recommended prior knowledge and skills

Access to the Unit is at the discretion of your centre. There are no specific requirements but learners would benefit from possessing HN Unit Networking Technology or equivalent knowledge.

Outome 1

  • The first Outcome puts the Unit into context by describing the role of a router in a network.
  • Primary functions such as packet forwarding and best path determination are introduced and contemporary router LAN and WAN interfaces are described together with their respective media characteristics.
  • The router start-up process is described including operating system location and loading and the locating and configuring of specific router settings to allow routing to operate.
  • A Layer 2 OSI model network discovery method is described. This may be vendor specific or vendor neutral and will be dependent on the resources within centres.
  • The structure of a routing table is described with particular reference to the identification of routing table entries, their classification and associated metrics.

Outcome 2

  • IP addressing schemes such as IPv4 classful and classless are described. In particular the limitations of classful addressing and the requirement for VLSM and CIDR techniques are outlined.
  • The requirement for the IPv6 addressing scheme is described together with features such as address space, address assignment and simplified processing by routers.

Outcome 3

  • The requirement for static routing is described. In addition the classification of legacy and contemporary routing protocols is defined, for example, Distance Vector and Link State, vendor-specific (EIGRP) and vendor-neutral (OSPF).
  • Contemporary interior gateway routing protocols are described. In particular, their choice and use of metrics, method of convergence, algorithm for path determination and mechanism to avoid common routing problems such as routing loops.

Outcome 4

  • The culmination of this Outcome will be the implementation of a routed network from a given scenario. This will involve the learner in designing an appropriate IP addressing scheme to allow all end devices on the network to be able to communicate with each other.
  • In tandem with this the learner will require to choose a routing scheme, for example a combination of static and dynamic routing, to allow data to be routed between end devices.
  • The router user interface (CLI or GUI) and relevant commands are introduced and demonstrated.

Next – Router Functions